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1. What are the three selective processes that we use to gather and intrepret information?  Please give examples.
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Dea's answers
People gather and interpret information from constant stimuli. The selective processes we apply are selective exposure, selective perception, and selective retention. Our selective processes are affected by our current needs and those are the ones we focus on. We seek out and notice only information that interests us, or we use selective exposure. When reading a magazine, if we are trying to lose weight for that upcoming wedding, we may skip to the “she lost 50 pounds in 4 weeks, find out how she did it” article. We may never notice the many perfume, cosmetic, or clothing ads. We also “read into” or ignore messages that conflict with our preconceived ideas or beliefs, which is selective perception. If we believe that Americans are sue happy, then when we see a commercial for a local attorney, we may “read into” the message that they are ambulance chasing and are not trust worthy. Selective retention is how we are able to remember some things and not others, even though we have been exposed to it over and over again. For example, you can remember every word to your favorite song but may not be able to remember even the name of a song that you hear on the radio every day.
Word count: 207 words
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2. List three examples of the types of modern life cycles stages and give an example of something that would purchase.

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Dea's answers
Life cycle has immense influence on purchasing decisions. A young single individual may use a large tax return to buy the latest and greatest smartphone with no thought to the expense. They are driven by the “want” to have it and purchase on the spur of the moment. They are still accumulating. An individual with small children might opt to spend that money more conservatively and put more thought into their purchase. They may look to pay off debt or purchase something the whole family can enjoy. They may tend to look more to the future and how the purchase will affect it. The older, retired individual, with no children at home, may decide to treat themselves to a trip or some other extravagance because they no longer have to worry about children and family ‘responsibilities’.
Word count: 136 words
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3. What are three types of problem solving levels? please give examples.
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Dea's answers
Consumers solve problems based on the situation. Extensive problem solving requires much effort and is usually associated with an important need. A first time car buyer may do extensive research, visit many car dealerships, and ask friends and family for information. They would consider many variables, such as gas mileage, features, price, model, make, etc. When consumers are familiar with a product they problem solving becomes more limited. For example, that same car buyer may know the make and model they prefer when they decide to buy their second or third car. They may focus only on gas mileage and price when making their future purchases. Consumers tend to have routine responses to everyday products. When buying groceries, they don’t spend time researching or visiting different stores. They typically buy the brand they prefer or buy based on price.
Word count: 137 words
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4.  Identify the 6 step process of the adoption process.
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Dea's answers
The adoption process involves accepting or rejecting a new idea or product. It starts with awareness or becoming aware the product or idea exists but has no relevant details about it. The drug companies are using advertising to inform consumers about new drugs that they otherwise may never knew existed. The next step in the adoption process is interest. Here the drug companies spark interest because they know there are people who suffer with the ailments their drugs treat. The consumer may do some research on the internet or may talk directly with their doctor to learn more. Once the consumer has some information they will evaluate the product. They may consider the risks associated with the drug and compare that to the benefits they might receive from taking it. If the benefits seem to outweigh the risk, they may ask their doctor to prescribe it so that they can try, which is the fourth step, the trial period. However, when they go to the pharmacy to purchase the prescription, they may find out it is very expensive and the trial may end there. The fifth step in the process is the consumer’s decision that the drug is either benefiting them or not. If they do feel that it is working they may continue taking it. If they are feeling no real benefit, then they will most likely discontinue taking the drug. The final step is confirmation. The consumer may seek feedback from their doctor as to the drug’s effectiveness. Their doctor would test them to see if the drug is actually having any effect on their condition. They would follow up periodically with their doctor to continue to monitor the effect and this creates reinforcement. In this case the consumer would have accepted and adopted the product or idea. If they consumer decided that the drug was not providing the result they wanted then the product would have been rejected.
Word count: 319 words
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5. Explain what is meant by a hierarchy of needs and provide and examples of one or more products that enable you to satisfy each of the four levels on need.
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Dea's answers
The hierarchy of needs was a theory proposed 1943 by Abraham Maslow. It is similar to other theories and focuses on explaining the stages of growth humans go through. Maslow’s hierarchy has five levels but marketers focus on four; physiological needs, safety needs, social needs and personal needs. Physiological needs are basic needs and include food, water, sleep, etc. Every time we go to the grocery store, eat out at a restaurant, or buy a coke at a gas station we are fulfilling a physiological need. Safety needs can include personal safety, financial security, and well-being. To satisfy financial security, consumers may purchase insurance to protect themselves from liability, or purchase Certificates of Deposit at an FDIC intuition to protect their savings. Consumers may purchase an alarm system for their home so that they feel safe there. Social needs are focused on the need to feel accepted, or connected. Young consumers may purchase only designer clothing to fit in with their friends. Single adults may purchase memberships on dating sites to find a partner. Older adults may spend the money to go on group trips so they can spend time with others. The fourth level is personal needs, which involves personal satisfaction. This is probably the most diverse and individual need. This need is focused on self-esteem, accomplishment, fun, or things that make us feel good about ourselves. For some consumers, this may mean a membership to a gym where they can work out and feel fit. Consumers may purchase certain cosmetics because they are supposed to get rid of wrinkles. Some consumers may enroll in a class to learn something new that will provide a sense of accomplishment. Every consumer has these needs and marketers have learned to combine these needs in their messages. For example, some cosmetic companies have added anti-aging ingredients and sun protection to their foundations. Now a woman can look good (self-esteem or personal need) while protecting her skin (health or safety need) at the same time.
Word count: 331 words
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6. Identify the different roles and  explain and give a real life example of one the barriers that that any of these roles can create.
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Dea's answers
Roles in the buying process include users, influencers, buyers, deciders, and gatekeepers. Users are the individuals that will utilize the purchase such as production workers and supervisors. The users look at a purchase from a how it works or how will it change their job standpoint. They may want the machine that makes their job go faster or easier. Influencers are involved in supplying information for evaluating the purchase choices. They may make recommendations on which product to buy. However, they may focus more on specifications or technology. Buyers are responsible for researching vendors, choosing the vendor, and then negotiating price and terms. Their focus may be getting the best deal, not with how it affects the end user or if it uses the newest technologies available. Deciders are the individuals who have the authority to approve the purchase. They may be an obstacle because they may not be given all the information needed to make the best purchase decision or may not have enough expertise to understand the importance of certain features. They are also concerned with the cost. Then there are the gatekeepers, the individuals who control the flow of information. This could be the research assistants whose personal preferences or personality could influence the decision. They may only present information they think is relevant.
Word count: 215 words
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7. Identify the three types of organizational buying processes and give examples of each.

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Dea's answers
The organizational buying process is similar to the consumer buying process. The organizational buying processes consist of new-task buying (extensive problem solving), straight rebuy(routine response), and modified rebuy(limited problem solving). In the new-task buying process, a company may be looking to purchase a coffee service for employees. Because they have never used a service like this, they must research what is products are available, what their potential needs are, and what the ongoing costs will be. There will probably be many influences on this type of purchase. A straight rebuy is a purchase that has been made many times, such as standard parts, office supplies, or shop supplies. These purchases usually happen quickly because there is a routine already established with this type of purchase. They typically use the same supplier and know how much they usually need to reorder. The modified rebuy is a review of the purchasing process. A company may periodically look for better pricing through different suppliers, or may reevaluate their reorder quantities. These are perfect opportunities for marketers to present these potential customers with information and buying incentives.
Word count: 181 words
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8. What is the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act?
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Dea's answers
It is an Act passed by the U.S. Congress in 1977 to prohibit U.S. companies from paying bribes or authorizing an agent to pay them to foreign officials to influence a purchase decision. However, it was amended in 1988 to allow small payments to speed up processing of paperwork, inspections or decisions from bureaucrats if it is customary in the culture.
Word count: 61 words
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9. What is reciprocity and is ethical? Give an example to justify your answer.
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Dea's answers
The Principle of Reciprocity is based on the human need to give something when something is received. Giving things like discounts on initial orders, company trinkets like pens or cups to new customers, sending thank you notes to maintain a relationship with an existing customer, or sending a Holiday card to a customer are not unethical. The buying manager isn’t going to choose your company over another because the coffee cup you gave them is so fantastic. These types of things are creating good will with potential new customers. It becomes unethical when you try to influence the buyer to recommend or choose your company with something of real value. For instance, you know the company is evaluating you and another company as a new supplier. You also know the buying manager is planning to take his wife to Aruba and you own a timeshare there. Offering the time share to get the buying manager to recommend your company over the other would be a case of unethical reciprocity. Basically, if you are offering something of real value in hopes of influencing the buying manager, you are probably being unethical.
Word count: 189 words
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10.  Explain why a customer might be willing to work more cooperatively with a small number of suppliers rather than pitting suppliers in a competition against each other. Give an example that illustrates your points.
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Dea's answers
Suppliers are more willing to share information and work together to solve problems in a cooperative relationship. When suppliers feel like they are competing against each other, they tend to keep things to themselves and definitely wouldn’t work with competitors to help the customer solve a problem. The customer gets the benefit of many perspectives when working with several suppliers. For instance, Thomas Stallkamp started the SCORE program, Supplier Cost Reduction Effort, which was in place from 1991 to 1998. Stallkamp saved Chrysler over $5 billion by asking suppliers for suggestions on how to reduce costs and ideas on how to improve development. The effort reduced Chrysler’s R&D costs and product development cycle. Ford has now implemented a supplier collaboration program called Aligned Business Framework. Working with a number of suppliers also helps avoid the risk of strikes, shortages, natural disasters, and other unpredictable events. If one of the suppliers suffers an unexpected event, the customer has another source to purchase from. This also, allows the customer to control the relationship, rather than the lone supplier.
Word count: 176 words
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11. List the 5 steps of the Marketing Research Process.
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Dea's answers
1. Defining the problem. 2. Analyzing the situation. 3. Getting problem-specific data. 4. Interpreting the data. 5. Solving the problem.
Word count: 16 words
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12. Define and give an example of secondary data?
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Dea's answers
Secondary data has been collected or already published. The 2010 census is considered secondary data. The Bureau of Labor Statistics provides secondary data.
Word count: 23 words
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Explain the difference between Quantitative and Qualitative Research?
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Dea's answers
Qualitative Research looks for in-depth information with open-ended questions. This type of research would use focus groups and interviews. Qualitative Research uses fixed response options so that the data can be summarized in percentages or averages. This type of research is gathered through surveys.
Word count: 44 words
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Identify three types of surveys and give an advantage and disadvantage of both.
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Dea's answers
Mail surveys are questionnaires that are sent to by mail. This type of survey provides anonymity for the participant but getting them to fill it out and return it can be a problem. The response rate is usually low and they can be costly. Online surveys are questionnaires offered on the internet. This type of survey provides the same anonymity as a mail survey but also is much more convenient. They can be completed quickly and is much cheaper for the company then sending out mail surveys with return postage. The downside is that the respondents may not be representative of the larger population and may be misleading. Also, with both mail and online surveys, they don’t provide details as to why the respondent answer the way they did. Asking for contact information can allow for follow up. Telephone surveys are done over the phone. They are easy to do and can be done quickly with simple questions. An advantage to telephone surveys is that the interviewer can ask for more information that provide details regarding the answer given. The disadvantage is that a lot of consumers get irritated with telephone surveys and a good percentage will refuse to answer any questions. Due to all the identity theft in recent years, people are becoming more skeptical of anyone asking for information over the phone.
Word count: 222 words
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Define response rate  and discuss why a marketing manager might be concerned with about the response rate achieved in a particular survey. Give an example.
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Dea's answers
A lot of effort goes into creating and implementing a survey. The response rate is the percentage of people that complete the survey or questionnaire which is often low. Also, the numbers of respondents have a direct effect on the final cost of the effort. For example, a survey program costs a company $1,000 and is sent to 100,000 participants. That is only one cent each and sounds very economical. However, if you only receive 1% back, or 1000 responses, those responses cost $1 each. So, what starts out as a reasonable cost for information can sometimes turn into a very costly endeavor.
Word count: 103 words
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List the Four types of consumer product classes and give an example.
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Dea's answers
Convenience products are goods the consumer needs but doesn’t want to spend time or effort shopping for and include staples like packaged food, impulse products or impulse products like magazines, and emergency products like an umbrella when it starts to rain. Shopping products are goods or services that a consumer puts in more time and effort to comparison shop like when shopping. Shopping products include homogeneous and heterogeneous products. Homogeneous shipping products are goods the customers see as basically the same and ships for the lowest price like televisions or appliances. Customers see heterogeneous products as different and are concerned with quality and suitability like furniture or clothing. Specialty products are products a customer really wants and will make a special effort to find with little regard to price. A good example is a Tiffany’s bracelet. The last product class is unsought products. These are products that customers don’t yet want or know about. The two types are new unsought products, which are products that are new to the market, and regularly unsought products, which are products customers need but aren’t motivated to buy until it is a necessity. A new unsought product would be the iPad when it was first produced. Until customers knew about it they would not have sought to buy it. Regularly unsought products include grave plots and life insurance.
Word count: 222 words
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Define Heterogeneous shopping products and why is it so important to retailers to have this characteristic? 
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Dea's answers
Heterogeneous shopping products are shopping products the customer sees as different and wants to inspect for quality and suitability. Retailers benefit because consumers typically purchase these products based on preference rather than price. If the retailer is perceived as having unique products that offer quality and meet the needs of the customer, it is much harder for competitors to lure customers away and they don’t have to compete on price.
Word count: 70 words
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Identify the 5 levels of brand familarity.
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Dea's answers
Brand rejection means that a customer won't buy a brand. Brand nonrecognition means a customer doesn't recognize it. Brand recognition means that hte customer remembers the brand. Brand preference means the customer will usually choose that brand over another. Brand insistence means a customer will insist on that brand.
Word count: 45 words
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Is there any difference between a brand name and a trademark? If so, why is this difference important?
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Dea's answers
Brand name is the word, letter, or group of these that identify a product to a customer. A trademark is a legal term that includes words, symbols or marks that are registered for use by the company. Both are protected, however, a brand name doesn't have the same restrictions as a trademark. A trademark must use specific characteristics when printed, such as script or color.
Word count: 65 words
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In the past ,Sears emphasized its own dealer brands. Now it is carrying more well known manufacturer brands. What are the benefits to Sears of carrying more manufacturer brands?
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Dea's answers
Obviously, there is profit to be made from selling the well known brands. However, Sears benefits by drawing customers who are familiar with the well known brands and who prefer them. The most important thing for a retailer is to get people in the door. Chances are, when the consumer compares the well known brands with the Sears dealer brands they may find that all the features are the same but there is a significant savings with the dealer brands. They also may purchase other things while shopping in the store while shopping.
Word count: 93 words

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